Curie won the first of her two Nobel Prizes, on this occasion for Physics
jointly with Pierre Curie and Antoine-Henri Becquerel
for their discovery of radiation. Giacomo Puccini wrote the score of
Madama Butterfly. The Hohner accordion workshop opened
in Klingenthal, Germany. The hôtelier César Ritz
had a nervous breakdown, partly caused, it was rumoured, by the cancellation
of King Edward VIIs coronation dinner. Claude Debussy began La
Russia the penalty for sodomy was reduced from four to five years
exile in Siberia to imprisonment for at least three months. New York
Police raided a Turkish bath, the Ariston on West 55th Street,
and arrested twenty-six of the seventy-eight male patrons; twelve were
brought to trial for sodomy, of whom seven were convicted and received
sentences of between four and twenty years in prison. Meanwhile the
Royal York Baths in York Terrace near Baker Street in London offered
gentlemen visitors Turkish, Russian, Electric, Sulphur and all kinds
of other medicated baths without any hint of scandal.
Hindustan, a 16,350-ton pre-Dreadnought King Edward VII class
battleship, was launched. At a maximum speed of eighteen knots, her
many guns and torpedoes were highly intimidating, but not very accurate.
Meanwhile in Belfast, at Harland & Wolffs shipyard, the White
Star Line launched the largest vessel afloat, the 24,000-ton Baltic.
Douglas Haig was appointed Inspector-General of Cavalry in India, not
a particularly senior post.
Picasso painted his blue-period The blind mans meal (New
York, Metropolitan Museum of Art). Igor Stravinsky became the pupil
of Nikolai Andreevich Rimsky-Korsakov. Henry Jamess The Ambassadors
and W. B. Yeatss Ideas of Good and Evil were published.
George Bernard Shaw included among his Maxims for Revolutionists in
Man and Superman the following Golden Rule: "Do not do unto
others as you would they should do unto you. Their tastes may not be
Chamberlain resigned as British Colonial Secretary. Lord Lamington succeeded
Lord Northcote as Governor of Bombay; Lord Tennyson, Governor of South
Australia, succeeded the Earl of Hopetoun as second Governor-General
of Australia; other notable Colonial Office movements produced a domino
effect that brought chaos to many branch governments throughout the
Fifth Biennale di Venezia took place, and included the
work of Claude Monet, Camille Pissarro, Auguste Renoir, Auguste Rodin,
Alfred Sisley, among other French Old Masters. Monet painted in London,
producing numerous views of the Waterloo Bridge. Louis I. Sullivan
designed the Carson, Pirie, Scott & Co. Building in Chicago. Frank
Lloyd Wright built the Larkin Building in Buffalo, New York.
Strindbergs third marriage (to Harriet Bosse) broke down. Number
1 of Pamela Colman Smiths shortlived artistic monthly The Green
Sheaf, Joseph Conrads Typhoon and other Stories,
Bertrand Russells The Principles of Mathematics, Erskine
Childerss The Riddle of the Sands (one of the first espionagemystery
novels), Charles Webster Leadbeaters Clairvoyance, Beatrix
Potters Squirrel Nutkin and The Tailor of Gloucester,
George Gissings The Private Papers of Henry Ryecroft (a
mock autobiography) and Jack Londons The Call of the Wild (in
which a pet dog goes back to nature, and eventually leads a pack of
wolves) were published.
Butlers The Way of All Flesh, a novel of four generations,
was also published posthumously (as was Émile Zolas
Vérité in Paris) to much acclaim. G. A.
Hentys With Kitchener in the Soudan and John Buchans
400-page The African Colony, a sophisticated analysis of the
social and political future of South Africa, were published too. So
were Helen Kellers The Story of My Life and Rudyard Kiplings
Five Nations, a collection of poems many of which "were
cabled across the seas and discussed as events of international significance."
darte started up in Florence. The Burlington Magazine
started up in Bloomsbury. La Revue blanche folded in Paris, as
did the American journal Art Amateur. Frederick Delius began
writing Sea Drift (to words by Walt Whitman). Evelyn Waugh and
George Orwell were born. So were Claire Booth Luce, Ceri Richards, Eleanor
Lambert, Cyril Connolly, A. L. Rowse, Lennox Berkeley, Theodor Adorno,
Mark Rothko, Bob Hope, Georges Simenon and Barbara Hepworth.
centenaries of the birth of Hector Berlioz and Sir Joseph Paxton, Beethovens
Symphony No. 3 in E flat, the "Eroica," the Louisiana
Purchase, and the commencement of Lewis & Clarks Corps
of Discovery were celebrated, as was the bicentenary of St. Petersburg.
The Tariff Reform League was established in London. Reginald Brabazon,
twelfth Earl of Meath, invented Empire Day, a clever way of continuing
to celebrate Queen Victorias birthday each year on May 24.
first twentieth-century pogrom against Russian Jews resulted from the
murder on Easter Eve of a Christian boy in the town of Kishinev in Bessarabia.
Viciously manipulating the prejudices of ignorant townsfolk, the imperial
government falsely claimed that the boys flesh was used to make
Passover matzoh; twelve died, 250 Jewish houses were destroyed
and thirty-six survivors were unjustly prosecuted as a result of the
in Basel, the Sixth Zionist Congress considered a British proposal to
turn Uganda into a temporary refuge for the Jews of all nations. The
Turks massacred many innocent Bulgarian women and children while putting
down rebellions in the Balkans. At a meeting in London, the Russian
Socialist Party split into two factions, the Bolsheviks (led by V. I.
Lenin) and the Mensheviks (led by Julius Martov).
London, 22,000 telephones were in use, from which approximately 13.5
million calls were made (including exchange connections). These figures
were positively backward compared with France (203 million calls from
109,000 telephones) and Germany (far more talkative, with 927 million
calls from 470,000 telephones). It was found that 133 members of the
House of Commons not only did not give a speech, but did not even ask
the numerous British army officers qualified as foreign language interpreters,
121 claimed to speak Russian, thirteen Arabic, four Chinese, three Portuguese
and two Swedish. Not surprisingly, given the close proximity of the
Boer War, only two officers were prepared to speak Cape Dutch (Afrikaans).
Paris to Madrid Motor Race was wrecked by numerous accidents involving
competitors and spectators along the route. An English entrant was burned
to death when his Wolseley overturned at a level crossing near Bonneval.
Another car hit and killed a pedestrian at Ablis. Deaths also occurred
at Sillac, Arveyres and Angoulême, including a number of mécaniciens.
Louis Rénault achieved a speed of 143 kph at La Bourdinière;
The Hon. C. S. Rolls pulled out of the race just before the French government
called it off.
S. Porters motion picture The Great Train Robbery was shot
on various locations in New Jersey. Henri Matisse, André Derain
and others saw the Gauguin retrospective at the 1st Salon
dautomne in Paris; as a result their colours got hotter, their
brushwork bolder. Before long the critic Louis Vauxcelles called them,
thrillingly, "wild beasts" (fauves). Barbiturates were
synthesized in Germany, and entered commercial production.
Croce started up La critica. Giacomo Balla met Umberto Boccioni
and Gino Severini; Italian Futurism would later result. The U.S. Immigration
Act added polygamists, anarchists and political radicals to the exclusion
list, responding in part to the 1901 assassination of President William
McKinley by a PolishAmerican lunatic.
Electronic Palace, the first theatre in Japan to offer a regular program
of motion pictures, opened in Asakusa, Tokyo; it was the 36th
year of the Meiji era. The World Series baseball competition was inaugurated;
the Boston Red Sox beat the Pittsburgh Pirates. Sir James Millers
colt Rock Sand won the Derby at Epsom Downs. Following the death of
Pope Leo XIII, the cardinals elected Pope Pius X; he went on to become
Ford began selling the first "Model A" automobile for $850,
quite a lot of money. King Alexander I and Queen Draga of Serbia (Yugoslavia)
were assassinated by a gang of army officers in Belgrade. César
Garin won the inaugural Tour de France. Charles Rennie Mackintosh
began work on the interior of Kate Cranstons Willow Tea Rooms
in Sauchiehall Street, Glasgow.
Edward VII and Queen Alexandra paid an official visit to Ireland. Panama,
with the direct support of President Theodore ("Teddy") Roosevelt
(R), seceded from Colombia. President Roosevelt transmitted from San
Francisco to Manila the first message on the Pacific cable. For the
first time a natural source of Helium was discovered (at Daxter, Kansas).
cartoon by Clifford Berryman in the Washington Post, showing
President Roosevelt refusing to shoot a defenceless bear cub while hunting
big game in Mississippi, led to the production of the first "Teddy"
bear by the Ideal Toy Corporation. The British Viceroy of India, Lord
Curzon, presided over a magnificent Coronation Durbar at Delhi in which
a procession of veterans of the Indian Mutiny of 1857 (all races) produced
McNeill Whistler died. The 3rd Marquess of Salisbury, three
times British Prime Minister, also died at 73. Paul Gauguin, Hugo Wolf,
Phil May and George Gissing died too. So did the drefusard journalist
Bernard Lazare, shortly before General Louis-Joseph-Nicolas André,
the French minister of war, announced the results of an investigation
into the notorious retrial at Rennes in 1899 of Captain Alfred Dreyfus.
Captain Dreyfus sought a second retrial.
forces subdued Northern Nigeria following the capture of the mud-walled
city of Kano. Christabel Pankhurst persuaded her mother Emmeline Pankhurst
to form the Womens Social and Political Union. Charles Booths
Life and Labour of the People of London was published. Laurie
("Little Do") Doherty won the singles (and, with his brother
Reggie, the doubles) finals at Wimbledon, and for the first time (also
with Reggie) won the Davis Cup for Britain.
Pavlova graduated to the rôle of Giselle in the Russian
Imperial Ballet; it took her another three years to achieve the official
status of ballerina. The Dutch botanist Hugo de Vries discovered
mutations in plants. Winston Churchill, Member of Parliament for Oldham
in Lancashire, contended "that for a nation to try to tax itself
into prosperity is like a man standing in a bucket and trying to lift
himself up by the handle."
France, Georges Clémenceau became Senator for the Var. After
working in the house of Worth, the young couturier Paul Poiret opened
a small shop in Paris. Joseph Hoffmann and Koloman Moser set up the
Wiener Werkstätte in Vienna; the Wiener Sezession XVI exhibition
was devoted to the origins and development of Impressionism.
the leadership of Gustav von Bohlen und Halbach, Krupp, the firm of
German armaments manufacturers, became a public company. Somewhat indelicately,
"Big Bertha," their large mobile howitzer, was named after
his wife. Nellie Melba completed her triumphant home-coming tour of
Australia and New Zealand, then returned to Europe.
E. B. Du Bois wrote The Souls of Black Folk, in which he predicted
that "the problem of the Twentieth Century" would be "the
problem of the color-line." Under the terms of the Treaty of Petrópolis,
Brazil purchased from Bolivia for ₤2 million the territory known
as Acre, a large swath of jungle in the Upper Amazon Basin.
in London saw 1,600 infants accidentally killed by overlaying,
"the slaughterer powerless under the weight of drink." Randall
Davidson, Bishop of Winchester, was nominated 96th Archbishop
of Canterbury. In Vienna Anton Bruckners Symphony No. 9 in D minor
was performed for the first time. Orville & Wilbur Wright achieved
mechanically propelled flight at Kitty Hawk, North Carolina.
Younghusband led a British military expedition from the north of India
to Tibet. On reaching Lhasa he was astonished to discover a Rover Safety
Bicycle unaccountably leaning against the wall of the Potala Palace.
A. A. Milne graduated from Trinity College, Cambridge, in Mathematics.
Oscar Hammerstein built the Manhattan Opera House in New York. Florence
Nightingale turned 83. Thousands were surprised to learn she was still